Category Archives: Uncategorized

RYE Bread.

Toast and Cofee a slice of swiss cheese, where this old year ended and the new one began mourning the unforseen passing of my father. My beloved, I resolved is lost to Covid-19 as stated by Kingston, city hospital.

An African Indian man on an odd piece of land, in a country living under status stature due to skin pigmentation. A Haitain economist and thence for a short time an American Citizen. What that took:-{ and his hearts plans for Haitian revitalization are now uncertain because where would I start? I’ve so many unanswered questions. This nobel man is now physically lost to me forevermore….

A classic humantarian and Historian. I lost him twice. Yes, given the chance to have toast and a slice of swiss, underlying aroma of his cofee brewing…. again means the world to me.

The understanding of who I am. Living with graditude for, I was granted the grace to learn of him. To have been in his presence played a significant fondational value emboldening my inner child to always acknowlede the fruits of the spirit and above all else to know love. For me to live wholly and honestly- who I live to be.

An advocate for juste causes and open to instructive informational conversations. Father would say, “Go and be great. Wherever your feet enter always enter with respect. Your mind is to assess self and thus make continuing efforts to address and make anew.”

Till we meet again father. May the smell of cocoa beans, and the sound of the toaster click clack–pop-up toasted Rye served with a slice of swiss- be my early morning routine.

Foster Care & the American Family

Emmanuela DeSanges-Sobia

Stability and Mentoring is the key to reaching a child

Triumphant stories of children who experience living in foster care are rare yet survival practices of these youth captivate the essence of human resistance. Very few succeed against all odds. Studies have been done to confirm that instability in foster care placements foster negative results. In order to overcome these challenges youth are in need of stability and positive role models, to serve as their mentors.

Foster care was intended to be short-term a temporary placement until children could return safely to their families or be adopted, but for more children, foster care has become a long term arrangement. According to the Federal Adoption and Foster Care Reporting System (AFCARS), in FY 2001 more than one-fourth of children in foster care had been in care for between two and five years; another 17% had been in foster care for more than five years. (Services, 2003)

The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being Survey (NSCAW) have found that “placement stability over the first eighteen months of placement in care for adolescents is significantly related to permanency outcome”… (Wilson, March 17,2007)

In NSCAW, “Regardless of a child’s baseline risk for instability in this study, those children who failed to achieve placement stability were estimated to have 36% to 63% increased risk of behavioral problems compared with children who achieved any stability in foster care.” Wilson continues “the odds of a child being reunified with birth parents decline dramatically as length of stay (LOS) increases-children with behavioral problems have much lower reunification rates than Children without behavior problems.-Long (LOS) are associated with multiple placements. Almost half of children in care experience instability.” (Wilson, March 17,2007).

Why is stability important? It is important because it gives a sense of foundation. Stability fosters balance. Without emotional, mental and physical stability a child becomes dysfunctional. The Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care lends their expertise to express Foster Care Voices from the Inside. The forward of the report reads:

 “In the United States today, there are more than half a million children in foster care. The majority will remain in care for more than three years and live in at least three different foster homes. Some will stay much longer and be placed in seven more homes when tragedy strikes a child in foster care, the media and policy makers shine a spotlight on the Child Welfare Agency, Case Workers, parents, and foster parents. Sadly, that spotlight rarely illuminates some of the structural factors that limit the ability of a Child Welfare Agency to respond appropriately to the needs of children in their care. These include a financing structure that encourages over-reliance on foster care at the expense of services that might keep children safely out of foster care or move them more quickly to a safe, permanent home. Nor does the spotlight generally find the unsung heroes – the case-workers, foster parents who nurture and protect vulnerable children; the parents who overcome great odds and reunite safely with their children, and the children who show remarkable resilience in the face of profound and often prolonged difficulty.” (Gloria Hochman, Anndee Hochman, Jennifer Miller, 2005)

The Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care was formed in May of 2003, supported by a grant from the pew charitable trust of the Georgetown University Public Policy Institute. The Commission will develop practical, evidence-based recommendations to improve outcomes for children in foster care. (Gloria Hochman, Anndee Hochman, Jennifer Miller, 2005)

            According to Hoch man and Miller, the Commission expert analysis is done “by two prominent former members of Congress, Bill Frenzel (R-MN) and Bill Gray (D-PA), the Commission includes fourteen additional members who represent the range of stakeholders in Child Welfare including agency administrators, providers, state legislators, judges, foster youth, adoptive parents, and former foster youth”. They bring a wealth of experience to the table. The commission’s work is designed to improve the Child Welfare System. It’s distinguished for its work because its observation is of primary sources. The Foster Care Voices from the Inside report, examines the experiences of parents, adoptive parents, foster parents, and the children who experience living in foster care.

The Commission crafts recommendations in critical areas:

  • Improving federal funding mechanisms to help facilitate faster movement of children out of foster care and into safe, permanent home, and to help reduce the need for foster care;
  • Improving court oversight of child welfare cases to promote better and timelier decisions related to children’s safety, permanence, and well-being.

The report Commissions vow to concentrate on the cost of foster care. Hoch man and Miller reports, “We usually think of the cost of foster care in terms of dollars and fiscal implications. But those most involved with and affected by foster care-former foster care youth, parents and foster and adoptive parents- made it clear that the system exacts a daily price on their lives. In a six point thrust initiative the Commission vows to concentrate heavily on themes such as: the cost of insecurity, poor communication, inflexibility, the cost of not securing timely help, cost of professional burnout, and cost of stigma.

According to Chairman Frenzel, “improvements in federal financing and court oversight will enable states and communities to take steps necessary to improve outcomes for children in foster care”.

As the report reads, it is best that a foundation is created for the youth in care. Youth may search here and there everywhere, but if youth don’t get the support circle they fail to gain learn to trust. Youth and parents cannot champion these challenges of being separated. Parents who redeem their places in the lives of their children can attest to the importance of communication amongst all authorities involved. It’s alright to need help. It is alright to be need guidance. It is alright to fall yet it is up to each individual to get back up. It is up to the parent to spearhead the process of rehabilitation. If a parent fails to do so because of mental or emotional instability the child is primarily affected. However, when those who promise to provide a secure and caring environment for the youth in need fail to take their work seriously the youth suffer tremendously. The youth are on the track to face the biggest challenge of all trying to stay alive.

            In the Pew Commissions executive summary about Fostering the Future: Safety, Permanence and Well being for Children in Foster Care the Commission reports that there are; “Two issues are at the root of many of the problems that frustrate child welfare administrators, case workers, and judges as they seek to move children quickly from foster care to permanent homes or to avoid the need to place them in foster care in the first place. These issues are reforming federal welfare financing and strengthening court oversight of children in foster care.” (Gloria Hochman, Anndee Hochman, Jennifer Miller, 2005)

            A former foster care youth who worked with the Commission in finding resolve to issues facing foster care youth stated, “So, this is how it is in foster care, you always have to move from foster home to foster home and you don’t have any say in this and you are always having to adapt to new people and new kids and new schools. Sometimes you just feel like you are going crazy inside, and another thing, in foster care you are growing up not knowing that you can really be somebody. When I was in foster care, it didn’t seem like I had any choices for any future. All kids deserve families. They need a family, to have some-one, this is mother-they need a family so they can believe in themselves and grow up to be some-body. This is a big deal that people don’t realize. I wish every-one could understand.”

In correspondence to the six point thrust the guiding principles for the work of the Pew Commission’s executive summary- (Gloria Hochman, Anndee Hochman, Jennifer Miller, 2005)The preamble states that “all children must have safe, permanent families in which their physical, emotional, and social needs are met. When children are abused or neglected, these fundamental needs are not met. The recommendations of the Pew Commission focused on improving, the circumstances for children who are served by the child welfare system, whether in foster care or in their own homes. The Commission’s work was guided by the following principles:

  1. Firstly, children must be physically and emotionally safe and must be protected where ever they live. When children are removed from their homes. Public authorities have an obligation to ensure that they are safer in and out-of-home care.
  2. Secondly, children must have their needs met in a timely manner at every stage of public decision making about their futures.
  3. Thirdly, children must have continuity and consistency in care giving relationships, including healthy ties to siblings and extended family.
  4. Fourthly, children must have equal protection and care, including attention to meeting children’s needs in the context of their community and culture.
  5. Last yet not least, children and their families must have an informed voice in decisions that are made about their lives.

The New York City Administration for Children’s Services reports that youth in Foster Care are faced with many challenges and odds. According to New York City Administration for Children’s Services Preparing Youth for Adulthood manual (PYA), “It is nationally estimated that approximately, 20,000 youth per year leaving the foster care system are unprepared or marginally prepared to transition to adulthood.”

Mentors are in need because youth in foster care face unimaginable struggles which enable many to become productive members of society. The foster youth of America are in serious need of guidance and emotional support. Because permanent placement is rare many youth don’t get the chance to bond with caregivers. There is need for one to one mentoring programs to be implemented for the youth who need it. This idea is personally believed may decrease the number of unsuccessful discharged youth who enter mainstream society.

 Although there are many programs implemented such as Independent living skills which are funded by the state and implemented to provide youth with life skills training. Few youths take the available opportunity for upward mobility the rest fall through the cracks many youth fail to uphold the requirements to earn the stipend given let alone retain the programs initiative to guide the youths concerning the importance of education, health and hygiene care, maintaining a household and money management.

The proof such mentoring programs are necessary come from the New York City Adults and Children’s Services Preparing Youth for Adulthood (PYA) “which expresses that the New York City foster care system is home to some of the most vulnerable, and poorest young people.” Every day, these youths are faced with adversities such as, drug abuse, hunger, homelessness, gangs poor school performance, poverty, suicide, teenage pregnancies, unemployment, and violence.

Mentors who are consistent and will work within state bylaws to ensure a safety net for youths correspond with social workers, foster parents and educational personnel. Empowering foster care youth with wisdom, testimonies, networking and survival practices which coincide with the Preparing Youth for Adulthood six point thrust is a start in the journey of molding and shaping these youths. Concentrating on each individual youth and how each point best fits the youth at hand permits a foundation.

Youth are in need of permanent connection with caring adults, they need to develop the skills that will enable them to compete academically, mentally, and socially with youth who are raised with ongoing support from their guardians and loved ones. As the foster care youth learn from mentors the skills that will enable them to make healthy decisions they will be afforded great opportunities. These opportunities will allow these underserved youth to brew their education and personal development. In addition, youth will be encouraged to take increasing responsibility for their actions, their work and their life decisions.

 Mentoring reinforces each youth’s personal individual needs. Each youth’s needs may be met; youth will establish an ongoing network of support after aging out of foster care. Mentoring programs are to be designed to meet specific needs of America’s diverse foster care population. These mentoring programs should be designed to be successful and work towards positive outcomes despite all odds. This is one way to raise the percentage of youth ready to transition into adulthood.

My personal message to youth in foster care, In times of trouble or growth, seek out the experience of others on your team who have experience.  One of the greatest gifts of going through your personal journey is people who can serve as role models for us to follow.  “We do not want to become lazy, but to imitate those through faith and patience inherit what is promised” (BIBLE) Study and learn from people who are doing what you want to do. Your system of values will guide you as you are on your journey. But personal values are not created in a vacuum; they are formed in the context of community. “Let us not give up meeting together… but let us encourage one another.    

During research and due to personal relation to this topic one can attest that these trials and tribulations are hard to endure. Ones fervor for supporting youth in foster care comes from personal experience. As a youth in care there were many youth who fell through the cracks. Youth in foster care across the nation are in need of developing critical thinking, decision making and use of sound judgmental skills. These youth need people who are not afraid to shoulder the burden of helping a child in need. It is not a simple task. These youth need people who will give them constructive, instructive, criticism and honest feedback.


Gloria Hochman, Anndee Hochman, Jennifer Miller. (2005). The Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care. The Georgetown University Public Policy, Department Child Welfare. Washington D.C.: Commisioned by The Pew Report on Children in Foster Care.

Services, U. D. (2003, March). Youth and Famalies Childrens Bureau: Preliminary Estimates for FY 2001. Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Administration for Children and Families:

Wilson, D. (March 17,2007). Foster Care Out comes: Does Foster Care help or harm Childrens emotional and social development. CA Medical Consultants , 12~.

Case Analysis: Gun Control

Emmanuela DeSanges-Sobia

The Nature of Decision Making

The lack of restrictive access to private citizens purchasing guns used in massacres on civilians in American communities has brought light to the disparity between the existing access the general public has to guns and the original reasoning behind the 2nd Amendment. 

The 14th Amendment’s loopholes has issued unrestricted concerns for private individual access to gun ownership.   The Bill of Rights II Amendment in 1791 “A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of every state, the right to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. It was initially applied to the Federal Government. However, most recently it has been interpreted to grant the right of gun ownership to individuals for purposes that include self-defense. The actual condition of the United States Government- Recent Supreme Court Law evaluating Gun Law restrictions-  

The premier source of my analysis is an Amendment Review by Cornell School of law scholars.

Thus, the Supreme Court has revitalized the Second Amendment. The Court continued to strengthen the Second Amendment through the 2010 decision in McDonald v. City of Chicago (08-1521). The plaintiff in McDonald challenged the constitutionality of the Chicago handgun ban, which prohibited handgun possession by almost all private citizens. In a 5-4 decision, the Court, citing the intentions of the framers and ratifiers of the Fourteenth Amendment, held that the Second Amendment applies to the states through the incorporation doctrine. However, the Court did not have a majority on which clause of the Fourteenth Amendment incorporates the fundamental right to keep and bear arms for the purpose of self-defense. While Justice Alito and his supporters looked to the Due Process Clause, Justice Thomas in his concurrence stated that the Privileges and Immunities Clause should justify incorporation.

Recent case law suggests that courts are willing to, for example, uphold regulations which ban weapons on government property. US v Dorosan, 350 Fed. Appx. 874 (5th Cir. 2009) (upholding defendant’s conviction for bringing a handgun onto post office property); regulations which ban the illegal possession of a handgun as a juvenile, convicted felon.  US v Rene, 583 F.3d 8 (1st Cir. 2009) (holding that the Juvenile Delinquency Act ban of juvenile possession of handguns did not violate the Second Amendment); regulations which require a permit to carry concealed weapons. Kachalsky v County of Westchester, 701 F.3d 81 (2nd Cir. 2012) (holding that a New York law preventing individuals from obtaining a license to possess a concealed firearm in public for general purposes unless the individual showed proper cause did not violate the Second Amendment.) (Cornell University School of Law).

Let us start with what has happened over the past 48 hours. Perpetrator orders an assault rifle from a high-end NRA magazine without restriction. despite zealous religious beliefs, he was still able to access a weapon to kill and injure citizens. These horrific incidents question who is behind allowing these civil acts of terrorism. Is this acceptable? Congress needs to address these concerns, as they are representing the democratic republic. A republic which is suffering due to ineffective gun regulations and policies. Closing in on what the significant concerns are and who is paying the price for ineffective gun laws- Children and parents at places of worship, supermarkets, school, at movie theaters, mall, people at parties.

The American Government should apply effective gun control laws which are above and beyond other countries. Here is where we are globally in terms of gun violence. 

The pressures for legislators to put in place mandatory background check procedures need to come to fruition. The effective objectives-

⦁          Federal Government needs to issue strict policies on who can sell guns with federal license. This will reduce dealers as opposed to collectors and will subject both parties to conduct background checks and process applicants thoroughly before issuing a license for guns.

  • ⦁          Federal Bureau should continue expanding their manpower to train and hire personnel who are specifically trained to process background checks, 
  • implement technologies that require persons who own guns to use their fingerprints when a gun is in use.

⦁          Applicants to obtain guns cannot via corporations, entities or inherit them via trust.

⦁          The Department of Health and Human Services need to address regulations/policies for the FBI to assess applicants who have extensive manic or whatever violent criminal history. 

  • Or subjective mental health issues to prevent them from getting access to guns- its a safety concern.

⦁          Administration to put in place stricter regulations for reporting lost and stolen firearms. 

Expected ConsequencesPositives Less civil gun violence Stricter gun regulations Safer country Reframing regulatory standards pertaining to gun coNegatives NRA feeling lost of money. More Government over-sight Extremist testing Security of country
Gains and Losses for othersSafer Neighborhoods Thorough Background checksStricter Criminal Penalties Fewer Licenses issued NRA losses money
Self-ApprovalThis will allow many to be less fearful returning to work in the field. Sense of security, cleaning up neighborhoodsN/A
Social ApprovalApproval of families, communities in United States who have been affected by gun violence. Tourism boost for country’s economy Only those qualified through extensive FBI receive licensure to sell and own.NRA losing money Illegitimate gun sales off the internet Mental Health Assessments prevention for gun licensure. Accountability via expensive cost for lost stolen guns, firearms


Holzer, M. & Schwester, R.W., (March, 2011). Public Administration; An Introduction. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN: 978-0-7656-2120-7 ( pgs. 138-145)


Watch President Obama announce gun control initiatives at White House

Assessing the School to Prison Pipeline

Emmanuela DeSanges-Sobia

Race, class and gender have been a straightforward factor in the policing of schools, and how it affects minority students. This essay will examine the structural framework of school discipline, and the support needed to address the social needs of minority students. Why does the education system in America need to reframe school discipline, and implement social changes that reflect students’ academic, behavioral and personal challenges, in order to optimize their quality of life? It is to prevent the growth of the school to prison pipeline.

Regardless of the neighborhood which they come from, students enjoy learning new things. Human beings have an innate will to learn and explore. Schools should always have teachers who are appropriately trained to meet the academic needs of students. A productive learning environment entails safe and clean building infrastructure where schools are held, an administration which understands the service needs and culture of the population they are planning for, and teachers who are as stated above equipped to harken unto the plights of their pupil. Educators or teachers should understand the cultural, economic disadvantages and social challenges their students face. 

“What is education? Education is the social institution through which a society provides its citizens with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills training, cultural norms and values. President and educational ambassador John Dewey believed in progressive education. He believed that education should serve as practical learning for students, and that students should be taught relevant skills to enhance their lives”. (Sociology,John J. Macionis; pg.537)

“The United States of America was among the first established civilizations in the new world to acknowledge the importance of educational institutions. The United States educational system instituted compulsory mass education, which is shaped and reflected by its influence of a democratic society. President Thomas Jefferson thought that the new nation would thrive as democratic principles implied that people should learn to read and understand what is going on in the world. However, crucial it is to have all people learn to read; girls and minority students as a whole were excluded from many academic privileges. Race, gender and class continue to be significant factors of exclusion for minorities”. (Sociology, John J. Macionis; pg. 537)

 Here in America, students are given formal instruction under the direction of “specially trained teachers”. A quote is placed on the specially trained teachers because many teachers lack the social and cultural training they need to appropriately guide or instruct students in impoverished neighborhoods. The impact that poverty has on a student with an economically disadvantaged education can be reflected in their attendance, behavior and attitudes. For starters, how can an educator work with a student who has not had a decent meal, who especially between grades 3-12 have confidence concerns due to abandonment, domestic violence,  neglect, or emotional maltreatment? A student who has not rested, is a student who is ill prepared to learn. 

When the above concept is coupled with the psychology behind Erik Erikson’s stages of development, students are prone to be critical of themselves.Common sociologist studies teach that, Erikson’s theory argues that adolescents compare themselves with others, and that most see a half empty glass as they seek to establish their personal identity derived from their family and social class standing. Therefore, concerns of an adolescent must be taken seriously as these concerns and how they’re handled mold them into adulthood. 

A teacher who moves from the suburbs or even one who comes from the urban area may be blindsided by the magnitude of assistance one student needs just to attend school on a regular basis, let alone complete homework tasks or find time to study. Many of these students are parentified at home; may lack proper nutrition; clean clothes to wear let alone a clean and decent place to sleep. Some young men opt to risk their rights to  an education because to them surviving the streets is key to succeeding at least short term, till gang violence or drugs overcome them, they risk it all just to provide for themselves and their families. 

 In New York State, Institute for Children Poverty and Homeless notes on their website that as late as 2011-2012 school year that “71,271 students were homeless. That means 6.9% of all students were homeless which was three times the nation’s rate amongst all states, these students 7 out 10 times were residing in shelters which are located in densely populated area. Which means they are attending schools that has reached its capta in enrollment. Graduation and retention rates are barely the nation’s 64% average hence, the educators are overwhelmed”.(

It is almost easy to say these teachers working with such students need additional training to be able to make these lesson plans incorporate or empathize with students personal struggles. These students lack self-esteem, in a sense self-esteem which is the foundational value of who a person believes they are, acknowledging their worth and values first begins at home. Most of these students may not have the positive feedback an individual needs from their parents to thrive and to acknowledge the importance of obtaining their education as a source of upward mobility. Education can become a valued equalizer amongst class, gender and race. 

The structural functioning analysis presented by John J.Macionis in his text Sociology, (Chapter 20- Education, pgs 521-537) discusses structural-functional analysis of education in America. At an academic institution students are given formal education which is essential to their place in society. Let’s look at role school plays in culture. The role schooling plays as a place to learn social skills,  which may be challenging, enjoyable and rewarding. Then discipline in schools and social control and how this affects a student’s long term development. John J. Macionis critical evaluation, states that structural-functioning analysis stresses the ways in which formal education supports the operation of a modern society. 

The following reading is found in Macionis’ text Sociology/John J. Macionis.-10th ed.(pgs. 521-537) “Structural-functional analysis looks at how formal education contributes to the operation of society. As the following analysis suggests, schooling does this in many ways- listed are his key concepts:

  • “Socialization: Technologically simple societies transmit their ways of life informally from parents to children. As societies develop complex technology, though, they turn to trained teachers to convey the specialized knowledge that adults will need for jobs and maintaining a household.
  • Cultural innovation: schooling creates and conveys culture, especially collegiate institutional research which may lead to discoveries in science or medicine. Which in turns strengthens environment biochemistry and findings improve life expectancy. 
  • Social integration: schools mold a diverse population into unified society. This integrative function is noted as important because the United States is a melting pot. This is one reason states enacted mandatory laws centuries ago as immigration increased- so that people understood the importance of education. 
  • Social placement: Schools identify and develop talent in students. Developing merit based systems to reward ability and effort regardless of race, social class or gender.” (Macionis, pg. 521)
  • John J. Macionis continues on to analyze the problems inherent in our educational system which ignores how schooling helps reproduce the class structure in each generation. By looking at the Social-conflict analysis these concerns are brought to light. The Social- conflict analysis is in contrast to the idea that schools provide a formula for upward mobility. Here Macionis argues that schools cause and perpetuate social inequality in several ways.( Macionis, pg. 522-524)
  • Social Control: Social-conflict-analysis suggests that schooling acts as means of social control, reinforcing acceptance of the status quo. Conflict theorist call these traits hidden curriculum, subtle presentations of political or cultural ideas in the classroom.
  • Standardized testing: A test strategically used to measure the academic ability of students in the United States. There is bias in the standardized testing as many minority students are not taught or know this society’s dominant culture.
  • School Tracking: Tracking is used to assign students to different types of educational programs such as gifted programs, college prep classes, general education, and vocational or technical training. Tracking supposedly helps schools appropriate instruction for students with different interests and aptitudes. However, educational critic Jonathan Kozol (1992) considers tracking one of the “savage inequalities” in our school system. Most students from privileged families tend to do well on standardized tests and get assigned to higher tracks, they’ll receive scholarships and other students do not get this privilege because they are not given the education opportunity. 
  • Inequality among Public schools: Given the racial imbalance of most urban areas compared to suburban areas- Funding for affluent areas offer better education value, the best teachers and opportunities. “

Schooling is not just about money. Macionis shares a classic report by a research group headed by James Coleman (1966) which is still truthful today- confirmed that predominantly minority schools suffer more problems, ranging from larger class sizes to inefficient libraries and few science labs. However, the Coleman  report suggests that although money may be provided it all boils down to the teachers, parents, and individual students’ drive for success. Rigid uniformity- meaning bureaucratic schools run by state funding generally ignore the cultural characteristics of local communities and the personal needs of their children ( Macionis, pg. 527).

However, the stipulations which hang over the doors of minority school districts is where the disparity lies, of course the students come in with baggage from their homes which pours into the school and this is from both sides of the fence. Students in a privileged neighborhood commit the same offenses on school property or grounds as under-privileged students and the consequences are far greater for the latter. For example, New York University Law students founded a project where students advocated for minority students who are given severe administrative suspensions at an alarming rate when compared to others. “NYU Law students founded SRP in 2007 to take on the “school-to-prison pipeline”—disciplinary policies that they felt were increasingly pushing at-risk students out of school and into the criminal justice system. Entirely student-run and staffed, SRP represents, at no charge, public school students facing long-term exclusion. The NYU-Student Representation Project Case Study reads that a student from Queens, New York; Naijab was given an unwarranted excessive suspension for a month in April of 2015”. However, through the effort and representation of SRP the student was represented in court and thus the charges were dropped and he was able to return to school. His collegiate dreams were not lost. Whereas many other students within the same school districts and those like it have not had the luck of being represented in court hence, they are sent through the school to prison pipeline.(

There are several sources of ambiguity causing disdain in our country’s educational system for students. For instance, adolescent minority students, especially from improvised neighborhoods attend underfunded schools. There are ambiguous concerns such as public schools neglecting to have the resources needed to implement counseling services, or meaningful educational formulas to address students with special needs (behavior, education or personal). In contrast to their counterpart students whose conduct reflect the same special needs (behavior, education or personal) students who are of different race and social class are given verbal warnings or counseling. Whereas, minority students are arrested on school grounds.  The unanticipated consequences of purposive social action to implement police presence on school grounds resulted in a vast number of minority students ciphering through what is known as the school to prison pipeline. 

There are facts which establish official municipal policy, the experiences of adolescents are not isolated incidents instead they are a part of a larger pattern and practice that exist within the New York City Public School Disciplinary system. Adolescent students from middle school to high school who become unruly are mis-handled by NYPD School Safety Division. 

The following is an excerpt, from the New York City Civil Liberty Union Court Records-  “United States District Court Eastern District of New York– plaintiffs are minor students -versus- defendants, City of New York; former Mayor Michael Bloomberg in his official capacity; former Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly in his official capacity; Assistant Chief James Secreto, in his official capacity; Sergeant Roslyn Downing-Lee, in her individual and official capacities; and School Safety Officers Kevin Mayes, and others whose names are withheld from the court documents hence, listed as Jane Doe, all in their individual and official capacities. Members of the NYPD School Safety Division engage in a pattern and practice of subjecting New York City public middle school and high school students to unlawful seizures and arrests by: (a) arresting students for minor violations of school rules that don’t constitute probable cause of criminal activity, and removing and holding those students off school grounds, often at police precincts; and (b) handcuffing students and detaining them in seclusion rooms in school buildings for minor violations of school rules that do not constitute probable cause of criminal activity. Students who are arrested are then removed from schools, typically in handcuffs, and held at police precincts, or transported to hospitals for emergency psychiatric evaluations in the absence of any legitimate cause for such evaluations. In addition, upon information and belief, a significant number of school children under the age of sixteen have been arrested at school for allegedly having committed non-criminal violations even though such arrests are prohibited by state law. During some of these removals officials use such excessive force injured students may require medical care or hospitalization.” 

Continued points discussed in court petition # 4-In recent years, New York City has drastically increased the deployment of law enforcement personnel to patrol its public school hallways. Since the adoption of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) transferring school safety responsibilities from the New York City Board of Education to the NYPD in 1998, the number of police personnel assigned to patrol New York City public schools has grown by 73 percent, even though school crime was declining prior to the 1998 transfer and student enrollment is at its lowest point since the past decade.

Point 5. The NYPD School Safety Division constitutes the 5 largest police force in the country, with more officers than the police departments in Washington, D.C., Detroit, Baltimore, Dallas, Phoenix, Boston, or Las Vegas. New york City deploys more School Safety Officers than guidance counselors: there are over 5,200 police personnel in public schools and there are only approximately 3,000 guidance counselors.  

Research demonstrates that law enforcement agencies frequently fail to account for the ways in which policing students in public schools differs from policing adults on street. A study commissioned by the U.S Department of Education found, “One of the most frequent and destructive mistakes many programs make is to fail to define [law enforcement’s] roles and responsibilities in detail before or even after- the officers take up their posts in schools. When programs fail to do this, problems often rampart in the beginning” (http://www.nyclu.org8/2016).   

In conclusion, whatever course of action taken by officials on school grounds to remove or handle unruly, frustrated students- the official should also think of the student need to be allotted their American Civil Liberty to an education. As Bolman and Deal discussed the two central issues concerning basic structural tensions, one being structural design: how to allocate work (differentiation) and how to coordinate diverse efforts after parceling out responsibilities ( integration). The division of labor-or- allocating task is the keystone of structure. (pg. 49) It is important for school officials to revise the concerns of the school to prison pipeline.

Every school should create a crisis team to address the needs of unruly students. Within the petition students’ grievances include plight for resolution. Request includes: a) Development of guidelines to ensure that school children are not unlawfully or inappropriately arrested; b) ensure that school administrators have an appropriate;role with respect to the maintenance of school safety, including by mandating compliance with state law requiring regular communication between building officials and police personnel; and c) implement improved training for members of the NYPD School safety Division with respect to the use of power to seize and arrest, and the use of force in the context of interactions with school children in New York City public middle schools and high schools.

The petition should also request specialized diversity training and behavior modification training for educators teaching at public schools. It is imperative that there are school social work behavior modification specialists available to assess and make appropriate diagnoses and or referrals. It is important that the New York City School system implement these specialized roles to get the important task of providing students from all social backgrounds race, gender, or class all respect due to obtaining a decent education. Why is it important to provide students across the board a wholesome educational experience? Because the students today are the administrators and educators of the generation to come. They are tomorrow’s America.


1-Macionis, John J. Sociology/John J. Macionis-10th ed. 

P. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-13-184918-2 (alk.paper)

  1. Sociology. I. Title

HM586. M33 2005

Chapter 20, pages. 521-537

2- B.H., on Behalf of her minor daughter D.B.; V., The City of New York; Mayor Michael R.Bloomberg, in his official capacity., Dated 11th day of June 2010.  Vol.Amended Complaint 10 CV 0210 (RRM) (ALC)., New York City Civil Liberties Union.

3- Bolman, Lee G. Reframing organizations :artistry, choice, and leadership/ Lee G. Bolman, Terrence E. Deal. Fifth edition. Pgs. 47-50 
5. (

Advocacy 001. for

What does advocacy mean to us? Advocacy in serving our New York State residents & neighboring community. I have faith we will persevere. Putting into practice strength based communimetrics assessments for service delivery as a Public Affairs & Administration professional.

Addressing policy makers and holding the accountable for actionable strategic outcomes. Ensuring what Maslow defines as meeting a human beings basic needs is met. (Food, Belonging, Shelter & Safety). Whether at local, state or federal level.


Faith, the various roots planted by seed of love, commitment, compassion and gratitude. Self worth, economic valuation. One seed at a time eventually sprouts good harvest. It is vital that one is capable of nurturing each seed at once and learn the art of balance.

What is mustard seed faith? It’s trusting that all will fall into place in due time. Its taking a few steps back and self evaluating. It is a roar, a song and dance when after all is said & done, the long nights, the fights, the health scares, the losses the grief you still have hope it will get better . It is all the other human intangibles. All the things I can’t explain yet have endured. Have molded me into the person I am today. My faith allowed me to develop patience. Having mustard seed faith is believing in a greater tomorrow.

I’ve come thus far because I had a small village of support. Just as I acknowledge there are scholars in need of a reason to have hope and believe in a greater good.

I encourage you too practice #Perseverance through flight or fight mode; making time for #Selfcare in-spite of being overwhelmed. I acknowledge #Compassion for others-stop and listen, share a kit-kat or donate a hat. Being teachable & practice #Humility we do not know everything nor will we ever become desensitized to another persons plight for advocacy or assistance. I am forever learning #teachable.

#Desfosterhope has mustard seed faith that those interested in ioining the conversation for effective change, & developing #SMARTGOALS for individuals & together as nation.

Fostering hope?

“A few months ago, I shared with you, & with some parents my journey as a foster youth . I was asked several questions regarding different experiences in foster care programs. Later I will provide some insight into my journey in foster care programs. Be mindful, this is my own experience.

“In quoting others, we cite ourselves.” — Julio Cortázar

As a youth in care- as a youth independent of care. Transitioning into adulthood and living this adult age having experienced care. The indefinite goal is to inspire youth living experiencing adversities and challenges. Learning from others, I take life one day at a time. ” Emmanuela DeSanges-Sobia